OIL AND GAS 1.1A INTRODUCTION (DEFINITION)
From the Greek word Petra (rock) Elaion (oil) meaning oil from rock.
By the interpretation of Section 15 of the Petroleum Act 1969, petroleum is mineral oil or natural gas as it exists in nature. Section 362 of the Petroleum Industry Bill includes condensate, bitumen and mixtures of any of them in its definition of Petroleum. Petroleum does not include coal, bituminous shales, tar sands and the likes-Section 15 PA, 362 PIB.
Scientifically speaking, Petroleum is a hydrocarbon compound created over time by the decomposition of microscopic sea organisms (like Zooplankton) millions of years ago.
Crude oil and natural gas are derived from petroleum. Crude oil: oil in its natural state (before refinement). It does not include water or oil extracted from bituminous shale, coal and other foreign substances that can be extracted by destructive distillation. Natural Gas: gaseous hydrocarbons as they exist in their natural state… whether associated with crude oil or not.
Crude oil varies in colour, chemical compositions and weight… These variations determine the commercial value. For example, lighter and sweet crudes are more preferable.
Unrefined crude has little or no direct commercial value… Refined crude may yield gas, fuel or residue cuts. Gas is the light end, residue cuts are the heavy bottom end cuts such as bitumen. The weight of crude oil is generally measured with API (American Petroleum Institute) grading system. This API system is measured in relation to the weight of water. Crudes of 30-45 are considered light, 22-30 are medium weight, crudes below 22 are considered heavy.
 Chemical containing Hydrogen and Carbon…
 Section 15 of the Petroleum Act and Section 362 of the PIBill.
 Sweet crudes are crudes with low sulphur content.
 Used for roads, waterproofing and roofing.